U.S. Water News Online
MALE, Maldives -- The tsunamis that swept across the Indian
Ocean did more than take a heavy toll of lives and property in the
Maldives -- they confronted the tiny island nation with a threat to
The archipelago of 1,190 low-lying coral islands, dotted across
hundreds of miles of ocean, has for years begged bigger, more
powerful nations for action against global warming, fearing higher
sea levels could literally make much of its territory disappear.
The speeding walls of water that slammed into 11 nations in Asia
and Africa, killing tens of thousands of people, marked a brutal
demonstration of vulnerability.
"We are the world's lowest-lying country," said Mohammed Zahir,
one of the country's leading environmentalists. "The average height
of our islands is 1 meter (3 feet)."
At a schoolyard converted into a disaster area on the main island
of Male, sobbing people waited for news of relatives from outlying
islands. At least 52 people were confirmed dead, among them two
British tourists, and 66 were listed as missing.
Ahmed Shaheed, the chief government spokesman, expected the
figures to rise after authorities make contact with distant atolls.
Although the number of casualties is small compared to huge tallies
in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand, they are comparable in
proportion to Maldives' tiny population of 280,000.
"Our nation is in peril here," Shaheed said. "Life as we know it
in this country is in some parts gone. Thailand, Sri Lanka, India --
these are big countries with a lot of land area. They can bounce back
from disasters like this. For us, it's not so easy."
Parliamentary elections may have to be postponed, although the
government has made no announcement yet.
Shaheed estimated the economic cost of the disaster at hundreds of
millions of dollars. The Maldives's annual gross domestic product is
"It won't be surprising if the cost exceeds our GDP," Shaheed
said. "In the last few years, we made great progress in our standard
of living -- the United Nations recognized this. Now we see this can
disappear in a few days, a few minutes."
Shaheed noted that investment in a single tourist resort -- the
economic mainstay -- could run to $40 million. Between 10 and 12 of
the 80-odd resorts have been severely damaged, and a similar number
have suffered significant damage.
Waves 3 feet or more high swept completely across many islands.
They extended over as much as half of Male, a relatively large island
of 0.7 square miles pouring down the narrow, sandy streets and
dashing against buildings including the president's office.
Kandolhudhoo, an island of 3,500 people in the northern atoll of
Raa, was "uninhabitable" after being completely covered by water,
Assistant Island Chief Mohammed Ali Fulhu told the Haveeru newspaper.
Residents were evacuated. Rather than trying to rebuild their
island, the people would probably have to start new lives elsewhere,
Relief efforts are focusing on contacting outlying atolls and
providing basic supplies to thousands of people who lack drinking
water, food and electric power.
Ten thousand people have been evacuated to other islands, where
authorities are working to prevent outbreaks of disease.
Shaheed said the Maldives was receiving disaster relief from
around the world and assistance from two Pakistan navy ships and
their helicopters, which were making a port call when the tsunamis
As the Maldives seeks reconstruction aid from the international
community, it's likely to step up pleas for action on global warming.
Although there was no direct link between climate change and the
tsunami, which was caused by a 9.0-magnitude earthquake, the world's
largest in 40 years, many Maldivians say irregular weather patterns
and erosion by the sea are making the country more vulnerable.
Shaheed said the Maldives would raise the issue at a previously
scheduled international conference on the sustainable development of
small island nations in Mauritius next month.
The country will also continue building physical defenses against
the sea. Breakwaters built around Male after monsoon flooding in 1987
may have reduced the impact of the tsunami.
Another result of the tsunami may be an acceleration of the
government's efforts to move some of the population to less exposed
islands. A big land reclamation project under way on an island near
Male could eventually settle 50,000 people, nearly a fifth of the
"After what happened, people may realize they stand a better
chance of surviving disasters like this if they move, and become more
willing to move," Shaheed said.
But such a mass population movement would deal a blow to the
traditional lifestyles of the Maldives's fishing villages, which the
government has been keen to protect. And it could mean abandoning a
growing number of small, habitable islands to eventual destruction by
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